Tag Archives: sporting heritage

National Sporting Heritage Day 2017

Today it’s National Sporting Heritage Day and we’re blogging about one of our collections which is particularly relevant to this theme.

Dennis Brutus Collection

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Dennis Brutus was a South African human rights activist, sports campaigner against apartheid, and poet. He is perhaps best known for his campaign to have apartheid South Africa banned from the Olympics. In the 1960s there were issues surrounding participation in the Olympic Games by teams from apartheid South Africa, where athletes were racially segregated and had to compete in separate trials. South Africa was banned from the 1964 Games, but controversy resurfaced concerning involvement in the 1968 Games in Mexico City. Various athletes threatened a boycott if the team from South Africa was allowed to compete, and South Africa was eventually banned from the Games and from the Olympic movement, not reinstated until 1990.The Dennis Brutus collection held at Brunel is a valuable resource for the study of this controversy.

Dennis Brutus (1924-2009) was a founder of the South African Sports Association in 1961 and of the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SANROC) in 1963, of which he became president. He was refused a passport and later imprisoned; other members of SANROC suffered similarly, but the organisation was revived in London in 1966, when Brutus managed to move to Britain. Pictured above are a range of documents on the Olympic boycott.



50 objects 13: Match analysis – from notebook to rocket science in 50 years

By Celia Brackenridge OBE, Professor Emerita, Brunel University London

Those of you sports nuts who know all about Opta, ProZone and match analytics may find it hard to believe but once upon a time there was no computer analysis of sports matches – that’s right, nothing! Charles Reep was the first person to make an impact on match patterns – notably the so-called ‘long-ball game’ – through his historic analysis of soccer play in the 1950s but hand-written notes were all that would-be analysts could use back then.

In the early 1980s, two major technologies were brought together to advance the science of match analysis: the first was the choreographic tool of notation, mainly associated with recording dance patterns, that was modified to record sport match patterns. In the early 1980s, coach Jake Downey developed a badminton notation and about the same time I developed a notation for lacrosse. These notation systems allowed us to store complete records of games, rather like musical scores, and to pore over these after each game to search for playing strengths and weakness. However, I was able to extend the technical analysis through the second innovation – the BBC desk-top microcomputer which could be used to crunch match data in seconds rather than hours.

BRAC3newThanks to a grant of £1200 from the National Coaching Foundation I was able to spend some time developing and pilot testing the lacrosse notation system around 1983-84. It was a laborious process! First, I divided up the field of play into sections and decided on a set of symbols to represent these, the players and the techniques. Next, I used a hand-held dictaphone to speak a running commentary of these elements from the pitchside. After each game, I replayed the tape and notated the match using a set of vertical staves and the set of symbols: I called this system ‘BRACstat’. A full match of 50 minutes would cover 7 or 8 pages. From the notated score I could then extract frequency analyses of passing and shooting patterns, individual player profiles and various other things. It was possible to read the score to see different tactical ploys, e.g. fast breaks, zone defences, and whether or how they were effective. I used this paper-based system during two stints as Assistant Women’s Lacrosse Coach at Harvard University in the USA in 1983 and 1984 and also tied the resulting match data in to social psychology testing with the women’s team there. Meanwhile, my colleague Anita White (then at Chichester) was working on her own analysis system for women’s hockey: we presented a joint paper at the 1984 Olympic Scientific Congress in Eugene, Oregon.

Handwritten match analysis

Handwritten match analysis

My colleague Dr John Alderson at the then-Sheffield City Polytechnic wrote a software programme for the BBC microcomputer and we typed in all the patterns from the paper version of the BRACstat score and the software did the rest, yielding print outs of various game parameters that I could then use to inform my coaching. I developed the system at some regional tournament games and went on to use it when I was England coach. John designed a prototype hand-held touch type system for squash which could be used to input match data in real time from the court gallery, with analysis made available to the player and coach during the one minute break between games. Shortly after this, a similar kind of rugby analysis was developed by now world-famous Keith Lyons: Keith has gone on to lead the world in rugby analysis, advising teams at the recent men’s Rugby World Cup and working for many of the international rugby coaches. He also held a position at the Australian Institute for Sport in Canberra for several years, tasked with researching and developing match analytics.


Annotated computer printout of analysis

Annotated computer printout of analysis

During the late 1980s and 1990s match analytics grew at a rapid rate as computer technology, statistics and sport science expanded their symbiotic relationship. Many professional soccer clubs began to employ match analysts and now it is unthinkable for professional sports of all kinds not to have on their staff at least one analyst armed with the most sophisticated computer technology. Their work is often kept secret for reasons of possible industrial espionage but scientific organisations like BASES have embraced analysts in their professional structures.
I wrote a few papers on match analysis (see Appendix) but my research career took a very different turn when I was sacked as national coach for not winning the 1986 Women’s Lacrosse World Cup! It was a severe blow after 25 years in the sport but I moved in a new direction and have since completed almost 40 years of research and activism in child abuse and violence prevention in sport. Looking back, I am proud of my few years of match analysis work in Women’s Lacrosse. It certainly helped me and many of my national squad members and perhaps helped to boost the acceptance of science in sport.

Appendix:       Match analysis items held at the Brunel Library in Special Collections

(Celia Brackenridge Archive)

Box G11: Match analysis research 1983-86 (Women’s Lacrosse) 

G11 1 1 Match analysis research – statistics and coaching Information
2 1 England match analysis 1984 – statistics and coaching information
3 1 South match analysis (1984 Territorial Tournament)
2 Pilot Test of Bracstat match notation system (Spring 1983)
4 Mini-audiotapes of match data – live recordings plus one C60 tape: England v Wales 1985; England v Reserves 1985; England v USA ?; selection comments 1985 and England v Wales 1986; Hockey v Sheffield League (u/d); England v Reserves 1986; Scotland v England 1986; Wales v Scotland 1986

Box G12a: Research papers, articles, reports and book chapters

 1: 1973-1993, includes:

Lacrosse interaction questionnaire and match data; Interaction analysis in a team game with particular reference to the use of microcomputers; You can play but don’t touch the ball; Understanding and developing team interaction; Interaction analysis methods in team games (with Anita White); Help or hindrance? Reactions of women’s team coaches and players to psychological consultancy; Coaching applications of team game analysis; Match analysis (with GJK Alderson); Interaction analysis methods in team games; Team game analysis; End-of-grant report on Microcomputer assistance in coaching women’s lacrosse.



National Sporting Heritage Day

Today it’s National Sporting Heritage Day, and we’re blogging about a couple of our collections which are particularly relevant to this.

Celia Brackenridge Collection

Celia and her OBE

Celia and her OBE

Celia Brackenridge OBE is Professor Emerita at Brunel University London. She spent her academic career researching inequalities in sport with special reference to gender and children’s rights. Among other things, she established her archive to document the struggles and successes of her efforts to secure child protection and the prevention of non-accidental violence and abuse in sport.

The collection documents her various research studies on sexual abuse in sport and her advocacy journey through the formation of the Women’s Sports Foundation (1984 onwards), the NGO WomenSport International (1994 onwards), the foundation and development of the NSPCC’s Child Protection in Sport Unit (2001 onwards). The collection is based on Celia’s commitment to recording not just the outcomes of research but also the process and experience of doing advocacy-based investigations.

You can find out more about the collection on our website.

Dennis Brutus Collection

Dennis Brutus was a South African human rights activist, sports campaigner against apartheid, and poet. He is perhaps best known for his campaign to have apartheid South Africa banned from the Olympics in the 1960s. His collection here at Brunel includes personal and professional correspondence and a large collection of newspaper cuttings on sport and apartheid in South Africa.

Find out more about the Dennis Brutus collection on our website.